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Staff Recommends Skip to main content. Search form. Advanced Search. It refers to the potentially infinite self-reflection that emerges when a play starts mirroring its own action or begins to comment on it. The self-reflexive effect of baroque theatre is most overwhelming when the structural and the thematic self-reflexivity coincide. This happens when a play-within-the- play is used to reveal something about the characters or plot in the original framing story. This is the way the performance of the Mousetrap is used Hamlet. In this film Russell uses these tropes to reflect, through the play-within-the-film, on his own position as an artist.
There are some excellent film studies articles, especially in the latest issue, on the "Neo-Baroque", which begins the below list. Film Studies For Free today presents a whole host of links to studies of cinematic pastiche. It begins with the above video -- the latest in FSFF 's experiments in videographic comparison -- which is designed to afford its viewers a space for real-time co-contemplation of the opening titles sequences of All That Heaven Allows Douglas Sirk , and its 'pastiche' Far From Heaven Todd Haynes , And, boy, it was!
It really should have waited Some time back, the very kind people at the great Close Up film centre were in touch to announce their relaunch of excellent film magazine Vertigo as an online publication. The just published reboot issue -- Godard Is. The luscious links are below. Close Up Films is on Facebook and Twitter. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effect of sildenafil monotherapy versus combination therapy with sildenafil and pimobendan in dogs with moderate and severe pulmonary hypertension.
Exclusion criteria included lack of follow up examination and pulmonary hypertension secondary to left sided heart disease. The quality of life score pre and post treatment, survival time, time to cardiac event, and estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure pre and post treatment, were evaluated in both groups. A total of 91 dogs were enrolled in the study. In conclusion, combination therapy of sildenafil and pimobendan versus sildenafil monotherapy does not significantly improve survival time, time to cardiac event, or pulmonary pressure gradient, but it does improve patients' quality of life.
Myxomatous mitral valve disease MMVD is the most common cardiac disease in dogs; however, the causative mechanism and specific tissue pathways of the disease remain unclear. The [median range ] for each treatment group was as follows: Negative control [4. However, variability in valve orientation affected tissue sectioning and may have precluded the identification of changes between groups. Special stains and immunohistochemistry are pending which may help provide identifiable changes between groups.
Distemper is an important infectious disease and in endemic regions, such as Brazil, the number of dog deaths caused by the canine distemper virus CDV have been increasing. It has been proven that the virus has important histopathologic effects over the cardiovascular system although that has been scarcely researched. The present study evaluated the virus';s activity on the heart of 9 naturally infected dogs with the help of echocardiography, electrocardiography and Holter examinations.
Distemper diagnosis was confirmed with a positive PCR test and data collected was compared to nine healthy dogs. In agreement with the hypothesis that there is influence of the distemper virus over the cardiovascular system, this study found that the CDV affects directly or indirectly the excitatory and specialized conduction system of the heart.
As described in Table 1 , Holter evaluation of distemper infected dogs revealed a decrease in heart rate variability and absence of arrhythmias. The study revealed delays in conduction of the cardiac impulse and also an autonomic dysfunction characterized by increased sympathetic tone. Echocardiography revealed no dilation of cardiac chambers. Mitral valve disease MVD is the cardiovascular disease with the highest incidence among small dogs. The treatment is based on specific drugs and diets to control the signs of CHF, thus reducing clinical signs and promoting quality of life for patients.
In addition, increasing their incorporation into cell membranes causes changes in the ionic channels of cardiomyocytes making the cells less susceptible to arrhythmias. Vasodilator, hypolipidemic activity and blood pressure BP modulation are also reported. A total of dogs were evaluated, of which were carriers of MVD, of these 29 dogs staged in stages B2 asymptomatic with myocardial remodeling and C with clinical signs of CHF were recruited after evaluation of the inclusion criteria, they could not have other diseases.
The electrocardiographic evaluation showed a prevalence of respiratory sinus arrhythmia and a lower incidence of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. The control group was 2. Mitral valve disease MVD is characterized by the degeneration of the valvar leaflets, promoted by changes in the cellular constituents that lead to valvar insufficiency. The preclinical period is characterized by the absence of myocardial remodeling and pharmacological treatment is not recommended. The inflammatory activity is directly related to the development of cardiac cachexia syndrome, observed in dogs with chronic MVD.
Effects on the modulation of heart rate HR and blood pressure BP , antiarrhythmic and hypolipidemic activity are also reported. However, clinical studies have not yet been performed evaluating its effects in dogs with MVD. Only one dog evolved to stage B2 at 12 months. In the electrocardiographic evaluation, there was a predominance of respiratory sinus arrhythmia and low occurrence of atrial arrhythmias. The most frequent heart rhythms were sinus arrest and atrioventricular block 1st and 2nd degrees.
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Right pulmonary artery distensibility RPAD index has been used in dogs with pulmonary hypertension PH secondary to heartworm disease, myxomatous mitral valve disease and patent ductus arteriosus. Our hypothesis was that RPAD index was correlated with tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient TRPG assessed by echocardiography and it can predict the survival time in dogs with PH secondary to various causes.
Medical records were reviewed. Right pulmonary artery distensibility index, acceleration time to peak pulmonary artery flow : ejection time of pulmonary artery flow AT : ET were recorded in each dog. Owners were contacted for follow up. Right pulmonary artery distensibility index are correlated with TRPG and can predict clinical outcome in dogs with PH caused by various diseases. These indices can be used to evaluate the severity of PH in dogs with absent tricuspid regurgitation.
Systemic hypertension is a persistent increase in blood pressure which is a health problem associated with target organ damage TOD. Blood pressure control becomes more difficult to achieve as hypertension progresses. Therefore, early and effective treatment is essential to prevent hypertensive emergencies and to reduce TOD risk. Each patient had their SBP measured by means of an indirect Doppler method, both before and after seven days of treatment with antihypertensive drugs.
Also, five of ten patients treated with this therapy reached target BP. The aim of this study is to report the evidence of both macroscopic and histopathological findings compatible with myocarditis in six naturally infected dogs with Dirofilaria immitis. The cases were collected retrospectively from a private veterinary clinic located in Barranquilla. To be included in the study, dogs should have complementary tests such as Echocardiography, Electrocardiogram, Troponin I, Immunochromatography test against filaria and necropsy. Macro and microscopic changes were visible in all of the evaluated hearts.
Also in 4 of the cases the epicardium had a large area of red color surrounding the left circumflex coronary artery. When the dissection was performed in 4 cases yellow and white spots appeared in the right atrium and the endocardium presented hemorrhagic zones in the tricuspid valve. In 2 cases endocardial hemorrhagic zones were observed in the left atrium near the mitral valve, additionally in one case at the level of the mitral valve a black spot was observed near the septal leaflet. This study reports 6 cases of myocarditis in dogs with Dirofilaria immitis were not only the right side of the heart was shown to be affected but also the left side in dogs without pulmonary hypertension or right congestive heart failure.
Ventricular septal defects VSD are common congenital defects in cats and horses. Pulmonary artery banding PAB has been reported as a palliative surgical option for hemodynamically consequential VSDs in cats and dogs. PAB surgery results in increased right ventricular systolic pressures, thus decreasing the pressure gradient across the VSD and subsequent shunting volume. Five animals 4 cats and 1 pony that underwent PAB surgery between and were included in this retrospective study. For the surgical procedure, all patients had a left lateral thoracotomy.
Umbilical tape was used in the 4 cats for the PAB, while 2 nylon suture was used in the pony. Serial echocardiography revealed a median Thus far, there are two published studies suggesting specific genetic loci that are associated with the dilated cardiomyopathy DCM phenotype in Doberman Pinschers DP. The pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 PDK4 deletion is one of these mutations and is easily tested for using a buccal swab.
The PDK4 gene is a mitochondrial protein that controls the shift between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation depending on nutrient availability. We hypothesize that DPs deficient in PDK4 are unable to switch to oxidative phosphorylation and thus continue to use glycolysis. The switch away from fuel sources preferred by the mature heart fatty acids and towards glucose which along with lactate , is a common feature in cardiomyopathies and believed to exacerbate cardiac remodeling and ultimately manifests as ventricular enlargement, arrhythmias, and systolic dysfunction.
Systolic murmurs are common in healthy cats and cats with cardiac disease. The angle formed by the junction of interventricular septum and ascending aorta aortoseptal angle, AoSA might contribute to murmur generation. Exclusion criteria included congenital cardiac malformation, marked anemia, hyperthyroidism, or hypertension. Both systolic and diastolic AoSA measurements were made in triplicate. A significant, although weak, negative correlation existed between AoSA and murmur grade. Our findings suggest that smaller AoSA could be associated with murmur development in cats.
We performed ultrafiltration in all patients. Among the 48 dogs, 8 To conclude, it is possible to perform MVP without blood transfusion in dogs, depending on their body weight and Ht before and after CPB. In this study, the purpose was to clarify changes in blood gas during surgery when mitral valve plasty surgery was performed using cardiopulmonary bypass CPB. The subjects were 54 dogs with mitral regurgitation. For anesthesia inhalation anesthesia was combined with moderate hypothermia method.
In addition, Lactate increased from Post 1. Seven cases were observed in PaO2 that showed mmHg or less to post. All seven cases were improved by extubation after performing postoperative posture change and respiratory management. Lastly, Finally, SvO2 was low at pre Based on the results of this study, it was shown that after the CPB, it is leaning toward acidosis. It was suggested that surgery was able to maintain blood circulation better than the result of SvO2.
Furthermore, regardless of the state of the preoperative patient, PaO2 was finally improved in all cases and it was considered possible to maintain oxygenation appropriately. Azotemia is a situation frequently seen in patients with mitral regurgitation MR. The decline in renal function can be a prognostic factor at the time of cardiac surgery. In this study, we examined the effect of hemodialysis HD during the cardiopulmonary bypass for dogs undergoing mitral valve plasty MVP.
BUN and Cre values at preoperative, postoperative, day1, day2, day3, after surgery, the day discharged and 1 month after surgery were compared. Compared with the preoperative day, BUN and Cre were significantly lower in both groups after surgery, on the first day after surgery and at discharge.
There was no significant difference in Cre between both groups. It was suggested that HD showed an effect of lowering the renal value of the perioperative period in dogs with decreased renal function undergoing MVP. In this case group, the decline in renal function was not severe so that the renal value at discharge was stable HD: mean BUN Farther study is necessary in patients with further decreased renal function to verify the usefulness and limitation of HD. Thyroid hormones play an important role in regulating cardiac function. Several studies on human pediatric surgery have reported a reduction in thyroid hormones and hormone replacement after heart surgery.
The purpose of this study was to define the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass on the concentrations of thyroid hormones in dogs. TSH median 0. There were no adverse effects in the treatment group. Additional study is necessary to clar. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess effects of prednisolone treatment and time on study variables. No significant changes in blood glucose, blood pressure, sodium, potassium, cardiac biomarkers, or echocardiographic measurements occurred with prednisolone treatment at any time point.
Other than triglyceride levels, all hematologic and biochemical changes were mild and within reference ranges. Pulmonary arterial hypertension PAH is characterized by pulmonary arterial muscularization and right ventricular hypertrophy RVH with poor treatment outcomes and a guarded prognosis in humans and dogs.
Sorafenib has shown to potently reverse cardiopulmonary remodeling and PAH in human patients, but the effect of toceranib, a veterinary tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is unknown. The FMPA was reduced by 1. In conclusion, toceranib elicited weaker reversal properties on pulmonary arterial remodeling and RVH, and therefore, a low dose of toceranib in comparison with sorafenib may not be a promising therapeutic agent for cardiopulmonary remodeling and PAH.
Obesity is the most common nutritional disease in cats and is increasing in prevalence.
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Excess body fat predisposes the animal to deleterious effects on heart function and systolic blood pressure SBP alterations, arrhythmias and radiographic and echocardiographic changes have been described. However, there is not much information regarding the effects of obesity on the cardiovascular system of cats. This study aims to evaluate these effects on cardiovascular system of domestic cats and compare them with cats with normal body conditions. In obese cats, the mean SBP was In normal cats, the SBP was VHS analyses presented values of 8.
Heartrate was Obese cats presented higher values than normal cats in most parameters, except for interventricular septum in diastole IVSd , but there was no statistical difference in most of them. This study has shown that obesity promoted cardiac function impairment in the studied cats and, therefore, that it is important to monitor these animals since even asymptomatic ones may present changes in cardiac parameters. The study aims at measuring heart rate variability in Holstein cows, fetuses and neonates through a descriptive evaluation of continuous fetomaternal and neonatal electrocardiogram recordings during the perinatal period.
No significant changes were observed in maternal or fetal RR intervals and HR. Fetomaternal ECG is a reliable technique to detect cardiac signals in bovine fetuses in the last 35 days of gestation. After calving, the increase in high frequency and the decrease in low frequency variables indicate activation of the vagal nerve followed by heart and respiratory modulation. The equine maternal pheromone EMP has been used as a tool to calm equines facing new or stressful situations, which forces physiological adaptations and alterations related mainly to increases in heartrate HR and behavioral alterations.
This study aims at assessing the effects of EMP treatment in colts undergoing hoof trimming for the first time, employing the behavior of heartrate variability HRV as the main parameter. We assessed 20 colts with average age of 9 months that underwent hoof trimming for the first time. The animals were divided in two groups and a randomized double blind experimental design was employed.
The treatments EMP and placebo were administered and the Holter monitor was put in place. After 20 minutes, the procedure was started. The HR measured through the conventional method and HRV were measure at two moments: 20 minutes before trimming M1 and immediately after trimming M2. The results are displayed on Table 1. Statistically significant differences were noted when the HR was measured through the conventional method, with Group B presenting a decrease at M2.
However, no statistically significant differences were observed during the Holter test when comparing both groups. The measurement of heart rate variability HRV was reported as an acceptable method for assessing the level of stress and numerically express the neurohormonal effect exerted on the heart rate. Normal values for physiological parameters in larger breeds are often used as reference values in ponies. However, heart rate increases in smaller animals and, in adult ponies, is higher than in adult warmblood horses.
Little is known about the effect of pregnancy signalment on heart rate variability values in the equine species. This study aimed at determining physiological ranges for heart rate beats per minute and heart rate variability in equine mares at different months during gestation 10 months. The ECG recordings were made once a month and the data were used for analysis. Significant changes were observed in the fourth and tenth month of pregnancy for RR interval Renal dysfunction caused by primary cardiovascular disease is considered to be a class of cardiovascular renal disorders CvRD.
In small animal medicine, CvRD in cardiac patients is a novel research area.
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In this study we aimed to evaluate CvRD in cats with congestive heart failure CHF and primary cardiomyopathy CM by measuring cardiac and renal functional markers. Twenty healthy cats were used as controls. Relevant clinical information and survival status of CHF cats were recorded. Sudden cardiac deaths associated with ventricular arrhythmias have been reported in some families of Rhodesian Ridgeback dogs. We examined ambulatory electrocardiographic Holter recordings from 98 Rhodesian Ridgebacks that were reported to be asymptomatic by their owners.
Recordings with at least 20 hours of data were evaluated for the presence of ventricular and supraventricular ectopy. Complexity of ventricular ectopy was graded as follows: grade 1, isolated, uniform VPCs; grade 2, bigeminy or trigeminy; grade 3, couplets or triplets; grade 4, R on T or nonsustained ventricular tachycardia; there were no dogs with sustained ventricular tachycardia. Two dogs also had frequent supraventricular premature complexes. Additionally, supreventricular ectopy was also infrequently observed.
The aim of this study is to investigate whether the changes in coagulability vary with the severity of MMVD in dogs. We retrospectively reviewed charts from dogs with MMVD. The platelet function and activity declined in dogs with MMVD.
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The inflammatory response may play an important role in increasing platelet function as the mitral valve function deteriorates. Left atrial rupture LAR is an uncommon complication of myxomatous mitral valve disease, usually leading patients to die suddenly or in a few hours, but some dogs can survive for a long period of time. Congestive heart failure CHF was previously hypothetized to reduce long term survival. Doppler derived echocardiographic parameters influenced by atrial pressure, such as peak early E left ventricular filling wave velocity and E to isovolumic relaxation time E:IVRT ratio usually provide informations about congestive heart failure.
Although echocardiographic prediction of CHF at the time of LAR diagnosis would be helpful for prognosis, reduction in left atrial pressure due to chamber emptying to pericardial space could hinder this predictive analysis. Dogs that died from non cardiac cause were not included. Mean age was Cardiac tamponade was found in two dogs, being one from each group. Informations provided in this retrospective study reinforce the hypothesis that absence of congestive heart failure in dogs with LAR is associated with better long term outcome. Prediction of CHF based on isolated echocardiographic E:IVRT ratio was not accurate in dogs with LAR secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease and should be better investigated in further studies including larger populations.
Diabetes mellitus DM is a common endocrinopathy in dogs and its impact on the cardiovascular system is still unclear in this species. In human medicine, serum fructosamine concentration SFC use as a cardiovascular prognostic is growing.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate correlations among systolic blood pressure SBP , SFC, and insulin dose in use by diabetic dogs. SFC were measurement by a colorimetric assay. Eighteen diabetic dogs Our findings suggests that there is association between SFC and hypertension in dogs. This results emphasize the importance of the SBP monitoring in diabetic dogs, and suggests that insulin dose may be a more important factor than the time of diagnosis as a risk factor for hypertension in canine diabetic patients.
It is commonly used for the treatment of tachyarrhythmias, most notably ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Amiodarone and its main metabolite, desethylamiodarone may also block T3 binding to its respective receptor. Amiodarone induced thyroid dysfunction has been documented in people. We aimed to determine if amiodarone alters thyroid function in dogs treated for significant tachyarrhythmia. Records from our institution were reviewed to find dogs treated for tachyarrhythmias with amiodarone whose retrievable information was complete in regard to amiodarone dosing and thyroid function testing before and after starting amiodarone.
There were 6 males and 4 females with no sexually intact patients. Median maintenance amiodarone dose was 7. No clinical signs of hypothyroidism were noted at time of recheck. Amiodarone administration has been shown to alter thyroid function in humans. Our retrospective study aimed to find a relationship between amiodarone administration and thyroid parameters in dogs. In our study population, TSH increased after amiodarone administration, though no signs of hypothyroidism were observed. To our knowledge, thyroid parameter changes have not been previously documented in dogs treated with amiodarone.
Additional prospective evaluation with a larger population is needed determine the significance of this finding. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of mitral valve plasty MVP for treating pulmonary hypertension PH secondary to mitral valve disease in dogs.
Median TR was 3. There were no deaths due to residual PH until 3 months after surgery. TR disappeared in 4 patients and TR velocity was decreased in 5 median 2. Sildenafil was administered to 2 PH was a negative prognostic factor in dogs with mitral valve regurgitation. Our results suggest that MVP is an effective treatment for dogs with PH secondary to mitral valve disease.
Detection of equine kidney injury in initial stages, when intervention is likely to be most successful, is hindered by limited markers of early renal damage in horses. An enzymatic assay was validated using coefficients of variation CV , spike and recovery, and linearity of dilution.
Urine and plasma were collected from 7 nonazotemic and 7 azotemic horses. Urinary NAG can be measured in horses and shows correlation with current biomarkers of renal dysfunction. Additional work is needed to determine the timing of increase in uNAG index relative to onset of kidney injury in horses and to evaluate clinical utility in equine patients.
Lemirre and D. Urinary tract infections UTI are uncommon in horses and data are limited in equine patients. Escherichia coli are reported to be the most frequently isolated bacteria but several other bacteria can be identified. The goal of our retrospective study is to describe clinical signs, identify pathogens and quantify microbial sensitivity profiles. Clinical records from cases presented to an equine hospital between and were rewieved. Cases were included if a bacteriuria was identified with a threshold of unit forming colonies in cultures based on a previous study from MacLeay and Kohn Prevalence of UTI in our equine cases was 0.
Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. Evaluation of the response to treatment was limited by the study design. In conclusion, UTI is uncommon in horses and we identified a breed and sex predisposition. The incidence of acute kidney injury in hospitalized humans and dogs ranges from The incidence of acute kidney injury in hospitalized horses is unreported. The study aim was to apply a validated canine scoring system to assess the incidence of acute kidney injury in hospitalized horses. We hypothesized that the incidence of acute kidney injury in horses is similar to that reported in other species.
Horses that were diagnosed with primary renal pathology or were azotaemic on baseline serum biochemistry were excluded. No horse had a stage 3 acute kidney injury. The incidence of acute kidney injury in this population of hospitalized horses is similar to that reported in dogs and humans. Serum creatinine concentrations could be monitored in hospitalized horses to allow identification and early treatment of acute kidney injury.
Further work is required to establish the impact of stage 1 acute kidney injury on long term equine health. Cerebrospinal fluid CSF analysis is an important component of the evaluation of neurologic horses. The purpose of this study was to compare collection times, CSF cytology results, and equine protozoal myelitis EPM titers between the two collection sites. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected from both sites in randomized order. Collection time, total nucleated cell count, percentage of mononuclear cells, EPM titers, and serum:CSF EPM titer ratios were not significantly different between collection sites.
No adverse effects were detected for either technique. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinicopathologic findings of hospitalized adult horses and foals with Eastern Equine Encephalitis. There were cases that met the inclusion criteria. Data retrieved included season at admission, signalment, physical examination, neurologic evaluation, and clinicopathologic findings at presentation; as well as duration of hospitalization, treatment, and case outcome. Where available, historical information i. The median age at presentation was 1.
Eastern Equine Encephalitis in horses is a severe, rapidly progressive, and typically fatal neurologic condition. Cyclophosphamide, an alkylating agent, is commonly included in chemotherapeutic protocols for equine neoplasia, including lymphoma. Dosages regularly used in equine chemotherapeutic protocols are extrapolated from other species, and cyclophosphamide dose optimization has not been reported in horses.
Chemotherapeutic drug dose escalation is a strategy of gradual dose increases with careful monitoring for toxicity, utilized to determine the highest tolerated dose and thereby achieve higher dose intensity and maximum efficacy.
The purpose of this report was to describe cyclophosphamide dose escalation during equine chemotherapy. Seven horses had multicentric lymphoma and two horses had cutaneous lymphoma. Adverse effects attributed to cyclophosphamide administration were noted in one horse. These findings suggest that cyclophosphamide dose escalation may be used in treatment of equine lymphoma to achieve higher chemotherapeutic dose intensity while minimizing adverse effects. The therapeutic dose of cyclophosphamide may be higher in horses than previously used and further studies are warranted to determine the optimal dose of cyclophosphamide for horses.
Eight horses had multicentric lymphoma and three horses had cutaneous lymphoma. Complete remission was achieved in 5 horses Two pregnant mares were treated, with one mare surviving to foaling. Seven of 11 horses exhibited a total of 11 adverse effects directly attributed to chemotherapy.
This report is limited by its retrospective nature, particularly the variation in treatment. However, these findings show that chemotherapy can be used successfully for treatment of equine lymphoma. Primary hyperparathyroidism is uncommon in large animals. The objective of this study was to describe the diagnostic findings and efficacy of treatment in equids with primary hyperparathyroidism.
Sixteen horses and one mule fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The most common presenting complaints included weight loss 12 , hypercalcemia 10 , anorexia 6 , and colic 2. The median ionized calcium at presentation was 2. Five out of five successfully excised tumors were located at the thoracic inlet, and surgery resulted in complete cure. Four additional cases treated surgically, five treated medically, and two not treated also remained hypercalcemic.
Surgical excision appears more likely to be successful if a single abnormal gland is identified at the thoracic inlet. Decreased adiponectin concentrations are linked with the laminitis prone phenotype in equids with insulin dysregulation and equine metabolic syndrome EMS. The high molecular weight HMW form of adiponectin is closely linked with insulin sensitivity, and thiazolidinedione drugs increase total and HMW adiponectin concentrations and improve insulin sensitivity in humans. The hypothesis was that pioglitazone would decrease insulin response to oral sugar and increase HMW adiponectin concentrations in horses and ponies.
Two cohorts of healthy equids, 7 horses mean Henneke body condition score [BCS] 6. Oral sugar tests OST were performed at days 0 and Lower insulin concentrations during the OST and increased HMW adiponectin concentrations indicate positive effects of pioglitazone for treatment of metabolic derangements in equids with EMS.
Horses with abnormal physical examination or complete blood cell count, incomplete data, or with signs of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction were excluded from further testing. The CGIT was performed after overnight grain fasting. Age, body condition score BCS , cresty neck score CNS , baseline glucose, baseline insulin and triglycerides were also recorded. Characteristics of horses categorized as having insulin dysregulation and of those that did not were compared.
Of the 32 horses that met inclusion criteria, 12 horses The enteroinsular axis EIA comprises intestinal factors incretins that promote insulin release and suppress glucagon secretion. EIA alterations could contribute to energy dysregulation in critically ill foals. The EIA has been evaluated in horses, however, information is lacking in healthy and sick newborn foals. Blood incretin and insulin concentrations were measured at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, , , and minutes by immunoassay. In foals allowed to nurse, incretin concentrations increased above baseline within 15 minutes of nursing.
An oral sugar test OST has been developed as a clinical diagnostic technique to identify horses with insulin dysregulation ID. On the second day of the diet challenge blood glucose and serum insulin were measured over 4 h after feeding. As horses suffering from ID are prone to laminitis especially when exposed to high amounts of sugar it would be desirable to reduce the amount of diagnostic glucose.
Furthermore, a reduced glucose amount enables various routes of application.
Aim of this study was to determine whether a dosage of 0. Eighteen Icelandic horses of different sex, age, bodyweight and uncertain metabolic status were tested each by application of 0. Blood samples were collected for five hours and were analyzed for insulin and glucose.
Summing up, a reduction of glucose to 0. Diagnosis of insulin dysregulation in adult horses is frequently performed using Karo Light corn syrup. However, Karo Light syrup is not readily available worldwide.
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Composition of available corn syrups may vary, leading to different insulin and glucose results. In this study, we evaluated agreement between two formulations of corn syrup, Karo Light and Crown Lily White. This study consisted of two experiments. In experiment 1, 14 horses were allowed access to hay or pasture prior to the OST.
In experiment 2, 10 horses were fasted overnight prior to the OST. For both studies, corn syrup formulation order was randomized and oral sugar tests were performed one week apart.
Blood was drawn for measurement of blood glucose and insulin concentrations at T0 prior to administration of corn syrup and 30, 60, 75, 90, and minutes after administration of corn syrup. Blood glucose was measured using a handheld glucometer and serum insulin was measured using a radioimmunoassay. Data was analyzed for normality. Insulin concentrations were log transformed for normality. Changes in glucose and insulin concentration at each time point, area under the curve AUC , maximum concentration C max , and time at C max T max were compared between formulations using a two way analysis of variance with repeated measures.
Bland Altman analysis was used to determine agreement in insulin concentrations between formulations. This study suggests that horses have similar glucose and insulin responses to these two formulations of corn syrup. Equine metabolic syndrome EMS and pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction PPID are the most common hormonal disorders in horses and can coexist in the same patient. For combined testing, insulin and TRH were injected simultaneously. Early identification of horses affected with insulin dysregulation ID allows veterinarians to recommend preventative measures to reduce the risk of laminitis.
Veterinarians and owners often use whatever type of corn syrup is convenient, despite brand differences in sugar content. In dogs and humans, fructose increases hepatic glucose metabolism, lowering insulin and glucose responses to OSTs. A similar effect in horses would increase the number of false negatives from OST screening.
However, when insulin results were compared to the ID positive insulin cut off, tests with fructose correctly identified horses with ID only 8 of 14 times; OSTs without fructose identified ID in 12 of the 14 tests. Based on this, fructose does not have a substantial impact on glucose metabolism in horses, but may interfere with insulin responses during an OST. Vitamin E is essential for neuromuscular function. Six mixed breed horses 3 mares and 3 geldings and two untreated horses 1 mare and 1 gelding were enrolled. This injectable formulation may therefore be useful in cases refractory to oral supplementation.
However, caution is warranted due to the marked local tissue reaction observed in all horses. Hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, and hypomagnesemia are associated with various diseases in equids. Despite the interactions between these analytes and energy metabolism, evaluation of their concentrations in critically ill equids with lipid disorders is not frequently performed; therefore, the incidence of these abnormalities in these patients remains unclear.